The Principle Classification and Characteristics of Laser Cutting
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The Principle Classification and Characteristics of Laser Cutting

Views: 1393     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2023-06-06      Origin: Site


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1. Principle And Classification of Laser Cutting

● Principle of laser cutting

The laser cutting uses a focused high-power-density beam to work, so that the irradiated material is rapidly melted, vaporized, ablated, or ignited, and the molten material is blown off by a high-speed airflow coaxial with the beam, thereby cutting the workpiece.

The principle, classification and characteristics of laser cutting

● Laser cutting classification

Laser cutting can be divided into four types: laser vaporization cutting, laser melting cutting, laser oxygen cutting, laser scribing and controlled fracture.

1)Laser vaporization cutting

The workpiece is heated by a high energy density laser beam, the temperature rises rapidly, the boiling point of the material is reached in a very short time, and the material begins to vaporize to form a vapor. These vapors are ejected at a high speed, and a slit is formed in the material while the vapor is ejected. The heat of vaporization of the material is generally large, so a large power and power density is required for laser gasification cutting.

Laser vaporization cutting is often used for cutting very thin metal and non-metallic materials.

2)Laser melting cutting

When the laser is melted and cut, the metal material is melted by laser heating, and then the non-oxidizing gas is sprayed through a nozzle coaxial with the light beam, and the liquid metal is discharged by the strong pressure of the gas to form a slit. Laser melting and cutting does not need to completely vaporize the metal, and the required energy is only 1/10 of the vaporization cutting.

Laser melt cutting is mainly used for the cutting of some non-oxidizable materials or active metals.

3)Laser oxygen cutting

The principle of laser oxygen cutting is similar to oxyacetylene cutting. It uses a laser as a preheating heat source and uses an active gas such as oxygen as a cutting gas. On the one hand, the injected gas acts on the cutting metal to cause an oxidation reaction to release a large amount of heat of oxidation; on the other hand, the molten oxide and the melt are blown out from the reaction zone to form a slit in the metal. Since the oxidation reaction during the cutting process generates a large amount of heat, the energy required for laser oxidation cutting is only 1/2 of the melt cutting, and the cutting speed is much larger than the laser vaporization cutting and the melting cutting.

Laser oxygen cutting is mainly used for carbon steel, titanium steel and heat-treated metal materials such as heat treatment.

4)Laser dicing and control fracture

Laser dicing is to scan the surface of the brittle material with a high-energy density laser, so that the material is evaporated to a small groove by heat, and then a certain pressure is applied, and the brittle material is cracked at the small groove. Lasers for laser scribing are generally Q-switched lasers and CO2 lasers.

Controlling the fracture is a steep temperature distribution generated by laser engraving, which generates local thermal stress in the brittle material, causing the material to be discontinued.

2. Laser Cutting Features

● Advantage

1) Good cutting quality

Laser cutting can achieve better cutting quality due to the small laser spot, high energy density and fast cutting speed.

2) High cutting efficiency

Due to the transmission characteristics of the laser, the laser cutting machine is generally equipped with multiple numerical control worktables, and the entire cutting process can realize numerical control. When operating, just change the NC program, you can apply the cutting of different shapes of parts, you can carry out two-dimensional cutting, and can realize three-dimensional cutting.

3) Fast cutting speed

Laser cutting does not require fixture fixing materials, which saves fixtures and saves auxiliary time for loading and unloading.

4) Non-contact cutting

There is no contact between the torch and the workpiece during laser cutting, and there is no tool wear. To machine parts of different shapes, there is no need to change the "tool", just change the output parameters of the laser. The laser cutting process has low noise, low vibration and no pollution.

● Disadvantage

Laser cutting Due to the limitation of laser power and equipment volume, laser cutting can only cut medium and small thickness plates and tubes, and the cutting speed decreases significantly as the thickness of the workpiece increases. 

Laser cutting equipment is expensive and has a one-time investment. 

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